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Did Moses Exist? coverDid Moses Exist?
The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver

D.M. Murdock
582 pages | 6 x 9 | 126 illustrations | ISBN-13 978-0-9799631-8-6 | $29.95

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"There is no historical evidence outside of the Bible, no mention of Moses outside the Bible, and no independent confirmation that Moses ever existed."

Dr. Michael D. Coogan, lecturer on the Old Testament at Harvard Divinity School

The biblical figure of Moses has been the center of fascination for over 2,000 years, but what do we really know about him? Was he a real person? Did the Exodus truly happen? Or is the story in the Pentateuch a mythical tale written centuries after the alleged events? Why does Moses’s story resemble that of many other lawgivers and legendary individuals? Why are there so many elements of sun and wine god myths in the story of Moses? What does the focus on the serpent in his story signify? Who was Yahweh? The Elohim?

"The existence of Moses as well as the veracity of the Exodus story is disputed amongst archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence and related origin myths in Canaanite culture." "Moses," Wikipedia

Moses receiving tablets from Yahweh on Mt. SinaiDid Moses Exist? provides a massive amount of information from antiquity about the world's religious traditions and mythology, including how solar mythology, wine cultivation and fertility cults have shaped the Bible and Judaism.

Primary Sources

In the citations and bibliography appear numerous ancient sources such as the Bible, Anacreon, Apollodorus, Aristides, Aristophanes, Arrian, Cicero, Clement of Alexandria, Diodorus, Euripides, Eusebius, Herodotus, Hesiod, Homer, Josephus, Justin Martyr, Megasthenes, Origen, Ovid, Pausanias, Pindar, Plato, Plutarch, Porphyry, Seneca, Strabo, Varro, Virgil and others, often in the original languages, mostly Greek, Hebrew and Latin.

Also discussed are texts and words in Akkadian, Arabic, Assyrian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Phoenician, Ugaritic and other Semitic languages, along with Egyptian, Sumerian, Vedic and Sanskrit.

"A must-read for all those interested in Moses and the Exodus!"

Did Moses Exist? includes:

  • Maps and 126 illustrations 
  • Extensive bibliography, table of contents and index 
  • Hundreds of footnotes and citations from primary sources in multiple languages 
  • Best modern scholarship from credentialed authorities

"This book may be the most comprehensive study put together so far, using the best scholarship and state-of-the-art research methods."

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Study Guide to Did Moses Exist?

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Moses parts the Red Sea and leads the Israelites out of Egypt"We cannot be sure that Moses ever lived because there are no traces of his earthly existence outside of tradition." 

Egyptologist Dr. Jan Assmann, Moses the Egyptian (2)

"The life of Moses contains elements—canonical and apocryphal—that mark him as a true mythic hero, and certainly he is Judaism’s greatest hero and the central figure in Hebrew mythology."

Dr. David Leeming, The Oxford Companion to World Mythology (270)

"…the stories of the creation, of the flood, of Abraham, of Jacob, of the descent into and the exodus from Egypt, of the career of Moses and the Jews in the desert, of Joshua and his soldiers, of the judges and their clients, are all apocryphal, and were fabricated at a late period of Jewish history."

Dr. Thomas Inman, Ancient Faiths and Modern (5) 

Barbara G. Walker"Profound and impeccable scholarship."

"With profound and impeccable scholarship, D.M. Murdock systematically dismantles the Moses myth, exposing its non-Mosaic origins and its impossible premises. At the same time, she presents an enlightening survey of ancient Middle-Eastern history and mythology in general. This is an important book for anyone who wishes to understand biblical syncretism and the truth behind its traditions."

Barbara G. Walker,
author of Man Made God 
The Woman's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets 
The Crone, Feminist Fairy Tales, et al.

Robert M. Price"Amazing! I wish I could award you a doctorate!"

I am reading it right now. Amazing! This would make a fine dissertation, and you can tell anyone I said so! I wish I could award you a doctorate! You deserve one, my friend.

Robert M. Price
author of The Pre-Nicene New Testament

"Did Moses Exist? is a magnificent and courageous work of sound scholarship."

"DM Murdock’s study of the Biblical stories of Moses and their sources is a compelling and detailed analysis of the available textual and archaeological evidence. She explains in great depth and breadth the facts surrounding this major religious character, rigorously and systematically drawing on sound scholarship to demonstrate a new, provocative and coherent interpretation that refutes conventional assumptions. In highlighting the best and most scientific research, Murdock brings forth lost information with the high goal of enabling greater understanding and social harmony."

Robert Tulip

"An impressive and definitive piece of work."

"Previously I have interviewed Frank Zindler, Richard Carrier, David Fitzgerald, and Robert Price, all of whom are 'mythicists'; they don't think there was ever anyone alive whom we could recognize as either Jesus or Moses. Of the lot of them, I would have thought that Price was the foremost expert, but he referred me to D.M Murdock, also known as Acharya S, author of Did Moses Exist? The Myth of the Israelite Lawgiver.

"This is an impressive piece of work. It’s definitive."

Aron Ra, American Atheists-TX

"Murdock's best book yet!"

"I've read it. It's probably Murdock's most exhaustively researched and best written book yet."

Rio Veradonir

"Incredible researcher... excellent book!"

"Acharya, you are an incredible researcher. Your book on Moses testifies of your skill as a scholar. Your resources are inexhaustible. Thank you for this excellent book!"

Keith Soest

"Yet another quality, deeply researched book!"

"DM Murdock has written yet another quality, deeply researched book showing how much more likely it is that today's religions are an outgrowth of the myths of religions that preceded them than it is that they are actual history. You should buy it and actually read it before you reject it. I promise you will learn a lot."

Tom Cloud

"A very well-written and educational book"

"I finished your book this past weekend. It was fantastic. I am amazed at the research that you put into this, and what an extensive bibliography! It's a very well-written and educational book."

Cynthia Sue

"Your Moses work is the best in the field."

NB, Pennsylvania

"As usual, a suberb effort!!"

Bud Demetriou

"Excellent book - hard to put down!"

"Excellent book that thoroughly covers evidence from many acceptable sources in a sensible and methodical way. I am only a quarter through reading and it is hard to put down. With such a common sense look at the writings, I wonder why I was ever fooled to believe against the obvious, that the exodus story is pure myth."

Christopher D. Kimball

"Amazing. I highly recommend this book to all those who desire truth."

"Did Moses Exist? is amazing. Once again D.M. Murdock unlocks the truth, and this time she exposes the make-believe story of Moses. Unlike her critics, she has taken the time to research and present her evidence in a detailed yet easy to understand book. I highly recommend this book to all those who desire truth. This book is a must read if the truth matters at all to you."

Dave Tolan

"Deep, penetrating scholarship that doesn't miss a single corner of history, myth, or theology. This is the definitive book on Moses."

"Your book is what I expected: deep, penetrating scholarship that doesn't miss a single corner of history, myth, or theology. This is the definitive book on Moses, without a question. And certainly on ancient Israel and its surrounding cultures. It's exceptional, and bless you for giving the world such a gift.

"Sure, you may be preaching to the choir on mythicism with me, but the data is superb. It's like eating a nice steak dinner and knowing you can always have more."

Miguel Conner


"Your contribution is priceless, and it will resonate in history."

Dr. de Silva

"Here we have a really large assembly of the very best of research into these shadowy areas of legend and tradition."

"This great book will confirm what I've thought for many years: The promoters of religious dogmas will go to any length to popularize their fantasies of how ‘it might have been.’ Here we have a really large assembly of the very best of research into these shadowy areas of legend and tradition. There is a complete table of contents (over 6 pages), a list of illustrations (over 5 pages), a preface, an introduction, a bibliography listing hundreds of sources and a complete index. The heart of the book, the text itself, is nearly 500 pages of painstaking research and clear conclusions drawn. I must say, WOW!, what an impressive achievement by D.M. Murdock!

"An impressive achievement!"

“As Ms. Murdock makes plain, a pseudo-historical figure, such as the Moses treated here, does not arise in a vacuum. These religious heroes evolve over centuries as the promoters of the religion keep bringing to bear every trick they know of to solidify their own preferred take on history. I have often noticed that a lot of religious people apparently believe imagined events and outright lies are all right in the service and promotion of ‘a higher good.’ But what they really should come to realize is that there is no religion higher than truth. This book goes a long way toward revealing the Truth.

"This book goes a long way toward revealing the Truth."

"Finally, from the 'Preface,' Ms. Murdock says what we fans of Joseph Campbell's mythology and Carl Jung's archetypes are glad to hear:

...one need not throw the baby out with the bathwater and simply dismiss these traditions because they are myth, as myth is not meaningless. Quite the opposite is true, because myth is pregnant with meaning, more so than is understood....This book is necessary in order to bring forth the lost information, which in reality has a very unifying effect on humanity, helping to transcend biases and predjudices that divide and separate us...

“I would recommend buying the hard-copy as opposed to e-book due to the many illustrations and interrelated items where you will want to flip back and forth."

Orva Schrock

"...amazing exploration...really great comparative study... Take advantage of Murdock's linguistic and analytic skills by adding this volume to your reading!"

"Finished this amazing exploration of the development of religion in the Levant (Middle East to most of us). If you really want to know how we got to the here-and-now, this is the really great comparative study of the then-and-there.

"None of us will ever be able to scratch the surface of the materials analyzed by Murdock. Take advantage of her linguistic and analytic skills by adding this volume to your reading."

Albuquerque Lady

"Be sure to scroll down for the Google Books feature to look inside and search Did Moses Exist?"

In the video below, author D.M. Murdock describes the book's contents in detail. As she states elsewhere:

"My book is comprehensive, covering every major and many minor aspects of the story of Moses and the Exodus. In Did Moses Exist? I demonstrate scientifically that the lawgiver and Exodus tales are not historical. Next, I examine the myths that these fictional elements are based upon and how they came to be. You will not find this information in any other single source.

"My research includes primary sources in the following languages:

"Akkadian, Arabic, Assyrian, Babylonian, Canaanite, Egyptian, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, Phoenician, Sanskrit, Sumerian, Ugaritic, Vedic and others."


Did Moses Exist?

Table of Contents

Further Reading

Moses, the Promised Land and Easter
Ezekiel's Wheel within a Wheel Revealed!
Did Moses Exist? thread at Freethought Nation forums
Did the Exodus happen? A review of Lennart Möller's book The Exodus Case
Egyptologists: The Exodus never happened 
Did Moses Exist? review by Robert Tulip 

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Moses or Dionysus?

Acharya S on DVD