"Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of the Christ just might be the best introduction to the origins of the Jesus story yet."

Note on the revised edition: The cover has been updated, as has the font of the text. Although the book remains substantially the same, typos and errors have been corrected, and new citations and annotations have also been included. The page numbering, table of contents and index remain the same. 

"Revised and improved!"

Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ

Who Was Jesus?

(Note the following video depicts the pre-revision cover.)

From: Acharya S aka D.M. Murdock

i there!

 For years, people have asked me to provide a short and easy-to-read summary of the "life of Jesus" to share with family and friends. Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ is a book designed to do just that.

Who Was Jesus? is specifically designed for Christians and uses mainly Christian texts and authorities. It starts out recounting the story of Christ found mostly in Matthew, followed by a short discussion of each of the other gospels, where they meet and diverge from each other. Next, I discuss the concept of "textual harmonization" as well as the gospel dates, revealing that the gospels are a mass of "variant readings" and that their authorship and dates are uncertain. I also delve into some Old Testament "prefiguring" and "prophecies," providing all-new, original side-by-side charts. Next come many reasons why people do not believe the story of Jesus Christ, along with the standard apologies for such objections and a chapter discussing whether or not the gospel story is history or propaganda. Finally there is a conclusion reminding the readers how much of our future rests upon this issue and how it should not be taken lightly.

"I wanted to tell you how much I have enjoyed
Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ!"

"I ordered two books and have been passing them from one person to another and the response is amazing.

"Some people have ordered their own book and the effects are ever widening.

"People I had never been able to get through to before are now talking about the possibilities that all is not as they had been taught.

"Your books have lifted me out of the delusional world of Christianity and have been my arsenal of truth.

"Thank You!"

Dave Moake
Tomah, Wisconsin

"...an extremely thorough, meticulous and competent scholar, whose work has been unfairly overlooked by too many, for too little reason"

"I personally loved this book. D.M. Murdock raises some of the most painful truths about the lack of historical data pertaining to the Jesus of the gospels. If you were to ask me, I would tell you that D.M. Murdock/Acharya S is an extremely thorough, meticulous and competent scholar, whose work has been unfairly overlooked by too many, for too little reason."

Michael Sherlock, The Gospel of Atheism and Freethought

"This book must be the best introduction to this topic that I have ever encountered."

Ed Whiteside

"Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ contains never-before-seen material in a conveniently sized book of 296 pages!"

"Yes, I want to order Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ right now!"

Canadian/International Orders Please Click Here!
(Be sure to check your mail/bulk/spam folders for a return receipt!)
Amazon Customers - NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE!!

"Who was Jesus? is perfect for the believer and non-believer alike! In fact, this book will help these two groups understand each other better!"

Who Was Jesus? leads the reader gently through the problems revealed within New Testament scholarship. These are serious difficulties widely known by New Testament scholars, Christian or otherwise, but they are rarely brought to light to the rank-and-file believer.

Using biblical and Christian texts, Who was Jesus?:

Provides an easy-to-read summary of the gospel story of Jesus Christ.
Includes comparisons between the gospels, revealing discrepancies and difficulties.
Investigates the problems with the harmonization and dating of the gospels.
Presents precedents, prefiguring and prophecies of Jesus Christ.

Gives reasons why people believe different things about who Jesus Christ was - and why many do not believe in him at all.

Addresses apologies for the many objections to the gospel story.

Discusses whether or not the gospels represent "history" or propaganda.

"Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ includes a Foreword by Dr. Robert M. Price!"

Dr. Robert PriceThe Pre-Nicene New Testament"Divine Acharya -

"I'm proud and privileged to be part of this book! Thanks so much for the opportunity!"

"Who Was Jesus? is a fine work, characterized by your unique ability to spot neglected implications and aspects of debates..."


Robert M. Price, Ph.D
The Pre-Nicene New Testament

Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ contains quotes from the following Christian authorities, apologists and evangelicals, as well as New Testament scholars:

  • John Ankerberg 
  • Craig L. Blomberg 
  • F.F. Bruce 
  • William Lane Craig 
  • John Dominic Crossan 
  • Bart Ehrman 
  • Norman Geisler 
  • Gary Habermas 
  • Josh McDowell 
  • John P. Meier 
  • Bruce M. Metzger 
  • J.P. Moreland 
  • Ronald H. Nash 
  • Lee Strobel 
  • Merrill C. Tenney 
  • Ben Witherington 
  • Edwin Yamauchi 
  • And more! 

 David Bruce Hollywood Jesus image"I've known people with triple Ph.D's who haven't come close to the scholarship here."

"I think I've read every popular alternative theory about Jesus that has come down the pike--with Who Was Jesus I was very impressed.

"This book gives me pause for serious thought."

Pastor David Bruce, M.Div
North Park Seminary, Chicago

"Be sure to take a look at the TOC and excerpts below!" 

Table of Contents  Excerpts from Who Was Jesus?

Robert Eisenman image

"I can recommend your work whole-heartedly!"

"D.M. Murdock, aka 'Acharya S,' has written a really fine introduction to the problem of the Historical Jesus. She couches everything in the most basic terms, comprehensible to the layman, and lays out the problem and all the issues in a both really readable and digestible form.

"Her charts are insightful and extremely useful and presented in such a way as to make things immediately plausible to the general reader.

"I can recommend her work whole-heartedly for anyone on a world-wide basis who really wants to know what is at stake in approaching and coming to terms with the real person behind the literary image provided by those who created the story of 'Jesus.'"

Robert H. Eisenman, Ph.D
James the Brother of Jesus and
The New Testament Code

"Did Jesus fulfill prophecy?"

Find out here!

David Mills, Author of "Atheist Universe""I loved this book. It is absolutely superb in every way, from the eloquence of the writing to the integrity of the scholarship. This book should be required reading in every American classroom...."

"Ms. Murdock is one of only a tiny number of scholars with the richly diverse academic background (and the necessary courage) to adequately address the question of whether Jesus Christ truly existed as a walking-talking figure in first-century Palestine. This question, and many others related to New Testament reliability, are directly confronted and satisfyingly answered in Who Was Jesus?

"My personal recommendation is that Who Was Jesus? should be the first book purchased and studied by anyone, atheist or true believer, who wants to debate Jesus' existence and the Bible's veracity.... You should therefore make this book priority reading even over The God Delusion, God is Not Great and other excellent but, in my opinion, less important books than Murdock's....

"My very favorite chapter began on page 139: 'Questions About The Gospel Story.' If the battle between atheism and Christianity may be described as a philosophical and theological war, then this chapter provides your invincible arsenal of weapons of mass destruction....

"Murdock has stated that she doesn’t tell her readers what to believe: She just presents the evidence. Perhaps so. But the evidence she presents is so compelling and so skillfully argued that the conclusion, it seems to me, is inescapable: Christianity is merely another ancient mythology, like Greek or Roman mythology. Murdock has devastatingly checkmated her theologically enslaved opponents in this debate...

"To summarize: D.M. Murdock's Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ is unquestionably one of the finest and most enjoyable books I've ever read."

"It is thorough and scholarly, yet pleasurably provides invaluable knowledge on the most riveting of all subjects...."


David Mills
Atheist Universe

"When were the gospels written?" 

Find out here!

"Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of the Christ just might be the best short introduction to Biblical scholarship yet."

David Bergland 1984 Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate

"If you have ever entertained questions about the Jesus story as told in the gospels, the first four books of the New Testament, but were at a loss as to how to research and answer those questions, Who Was Jesus? by D.M. Murdock is the book for you.

"For some people, the Bible, and every word in it, represents the infallible, immutable Word of God. According to them, that Word tells us Jesus was God himself, here on earth in the flesh, on a mission to redeem his own fallen, sinful creation, man. Further, redemption required that Christ/God be killed, made a blood sacrifice to save man from eternal hellfire. If it's all infallibly true, how could it be that the four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John) tell different and contradictory stories about the birth and life of Jesus, about what he said and did, and about his resurrection? As Ms. Murdock clearly shows, the answer to this and many similar questions is that the New Testament was the product of a large number of writers and copyists who modified existing scriptures, religious ideas and stories to accord with Old Testament prophecy about a future messiah. All of this story-creation and modifying took place in the first four centuries of the common era, within the political context of the declining Roman Empire, a situation causing a culling process that ultimately selected the books that became the Bible from a much larger field of Christ stories. The Bible is the end product of centuries of tinkering by people who had political axes to grind-a fact explaining a great deal and neatly demonstrated in this gem of a book.

"Today, views about Christ fall into three basic categories: First and foremost, many believe the Bible to be infallible, the word of God, telling us that Jesus was God himself, incarnated as God's son on earth, born of a virgin, who performed miracles, was crucified, dead for three days then came back to life and returned to heaven. The second view is that Jesus was not divine, but was a prophet, a fabulous man who taught morality through parables, and gathered a great following. According to this view he may or may not have been crucified, but his followers went on to build a religion and a church based on his teachings. The basis for this belief is, typically, that millions of people have believed in him for 2,000 years so he must have existed. But being the son of God, the miracles, death and resurrection-that’s just a bit much for anyone with a healthy stripe of skepticism. The third view is that the Jesus story is pure myth. It is extrapolated from and built upon the many "son of God, born of virgin, savior messiah" myths that existed in the civilized world 2,000 to 5,000 years ago. The storyline was familiar to the early converts, making it easy for church leaders to sell them on it. But it was only a myth, with no historical record to support it.

"Now, which one of these hypotheses is best supported by the relevant evidence? Who should have the burden of proof? Should it be those who contend that Jesus was the son of God and that the Bible stories are true, or the skeptics who contend that these stories don't stand to reason? These are the key investigations "forensically" undertaken in Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ-and what differentiate this book from the rest of the "historical Jesus" efforts.

"In her analysis, Ms. Murdock - aka "Acharya S" - readily demonstrates the many internal problems of the New Testament, including anachronisms, contradictions and the utter lack of a historical record."

"In this endeavor, the author brings to light some surprising data, including the fact that the four canonical gospels as we have them do not appear clearly in the historical record until late into the second century. This contention is sure to cause controversy, as, although it is well supported by the evidence, it goes squarely against current mainstream scholarship. Murdock also shows that there is no scientific evidence for the events related in the gospel story-or even for the existence of Jesus Christ himself-and she reveals numerous precedents found in the Old Testament that appear to have been reworked to produce the story in the New. In the end, Who Was Jesus? asks, even if there was a "historical Jesus," can we truly find him to be the exemplar of morality that has contributed to the betterment of life on Earth? Or has this belief caused an unending amount of grief and destruction that could lead us into the "End Times" so widely touted by fervent believers?"

"Who Was Jesus? by D.M. Murdock is a 'must read' for anyone who has ever wondered about the origins of the Jesus tale, whether or not it stands up to critical scrutiny, and whether it really is the 'greatest story ever told.'"

David Bergland
1984 Libertarian Party Presidential Candidate
Libertarianism In One Lesson

Was Jesus Christ truly the divine Son of God who walked the earth 2,000 years ago? How can we be sure the gospel story is an accurate and infallibly related historical account?  When the gospels are examined scientifically, can we truthfully uphold them as "inerrant?" Is it possible to assert honestly and ethically that the Bible is the inspired Word of God? The answers to these questions and many more may surprise and shock you!

bob semes"Probably the best of this genre..."

"Thirty years ago, when in divinity school, I might have had second thoughts about becoming an Episcopal priest if a book like D. M. Murdock's Who Was Jesus? had been available to me.

Murdock's book, probably the best of this genre - written with clarity, precision, and conviction - unpacks most of the nonsense and mythology surrounding the ancient Hebrew figure called Jesus and presents a compelling picture of a mythological amalgam to counter most of the misinformation and wishful-thinking that passes for Christian apologetics today.

Bob Semes
Retired university professor of History and Religion
Founder and Executive Director of The Jefferson Center

"Is the King James Bible inspired?"

Find out here!

Barbara Walker"You have provided a valuable addition to the mass of literature already analyzing gospel tradition, and your arguments are both incontrovertible and stated with literary flair."

"I have finished your book, and I wish every member of every Christian congregation could be made to read it through, slowly and carefully (which is obviously NOT the way they read the Bible). If this were done, certainly there would be mighty reductions in membership.


Barbara Walker
The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets

Is the New Testament a "historical record" or "factual biography" of what really happened, or a tool for the priesthood to lay down doctrines and dogma as they were developed over the centuries?

  "Was Jesus the Jewish Messiah?"

"Was Christ the Savior of the World?"

"Was He a Cynic sage or a political rebel?"

"Or was Jesus Christ something altogether different?"

"Thoroughly researched and reasoned, and yet a delightfully readable book. A treasure."

"Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ makes extensive use of Christianity's own sacred texts to deconstuct the Jesus myth."

John Reardon
Military Historian

"Makes a GREAT GIFT - order as many copies as you can!"

"Yes, I want to order Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ right now!"
Canadian/International Orders Please Click Here!
(Be sure to check your mail/bulk/spam folders for a return receipt!)
Amazon Customers - NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE!!  

Buying the book through this page here may be somewhat pricier. But...

"If you buy Who Was Jesus? through this Stellar House webpage, we will throw in a free ebook, The Acharya Articles Collection   ."

The Acharya Articles Collection consists of three articles adapted from chapters in my book Suns of God: Krishna, Buddha and Christ Unveiled and originally published in magazines.

Special Offer!

"But wait! You will receive not one, not two, but three free ebooks for purchasing Who Was Jesus? through this site!"

Buy Who Was Jesus? here and received not only The Acharya Articles Collection but also the ebooks of The Companion Guide to ZEITGEIST, Part 1 and Jesus as the Sun throughout History! 

Companion Guide to Zeitgeist Part 1 

 Jesus as the Sun

"Your purchase through this site will contribute to D.M. Murdock/Acharya's future work!"

Loren Ball, Christian Biblical Errancy Debate"This is a first class piece of work that will be referred to over and over by the readers."

"I am not aware of another book on the subject of Christianity that packs more information into 296 pages than Who Was Jesus? D. M. Murdock, also known as Acharya, has written another very fine book on New Testament studies....

"The planning and the detail in this book show that everything is well thought out and clearly presented.

"Christians and skeptics alike will find Who Was Jesus? is not vindictive or condescending in the way the information is presented. Because many of the details may be new to the reader, this is a book every Bible student should have in their personal library."

Loren Ball
Christian Biblical Errancy Debate

The ISBN for Who Was Jesus? Fingerprints of The Christ is 0979963109, in case you wish to order through your local bookstore. This book is currently available through Amazon, in case you wish to economize. 

Who Was Jesus? Ranked at No. 7 on Amazon in "New Testament Biographies!"

Barnes & Noble also has the book for sale on its website. At this time, because this book is a print-on-demand edition, we cannot accept returns.

"Acharya has done a fascinating job on her latest book as she explains all the fallacies, misconceptions, and errors concerning the story of Jesus."

"D. M. Murdock, aka Acharya S., has done it again with her new book called Who Was Jesus? The Fingerprints of the Christ. This time she did what I always believed could be done, which is that we can take the Bible and show how it is a work of fiction. She does this by using various Christian and New Testament scholars, authorities, apologists, and evangelicals, such as Bart Ehrman and John Dominic Crossan. She shows various misinterpretations from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, as well as, how the stories were made from blueprints of other stories and the contradictions of the Bible.

"The book starts out as a very easy read for novices and momentum builds as she goes into a deeper understanding of how the stories cannot be taken as the literal inerrant word of God, inspired by God, but rather errant and inspired by humans. She starts each chapter with quotes by well-known scholars, appreciated by most Christians, and works from there showing how their statements convey the stories as fables and no more historical value or truth than John Jakes's North and South or Aesop's Fables.

"As Acharya goes through Gospels she relates the story of Jesus to previous stories in the Old Testament and shows how those stories are templates for the New Testament stories. She also shows how the Gospels not only contradict each other, but also do not have the same stories or even tell them the same way, thus showing they are not actual eyewitness accounts, but rather various midrashes and rewrites of other stories.... She also uses other sources outside the Bible that point to forgeries and interpolations, by using scholars who have studied Pliny, Flavius, and others, and found in them statements that the founders of Christianity manipulated to impose the religion on the masses and make it look historical, when in fact it was not.

"Finally, her knowledge of ancient languages appears as she explains various words or even sentences that were translated inaccurately. In fact, some ancient manuscripts do not have some verses and ancient church fathers showed no knowledge of these verses or are total mistranslations. In some cases, Acharya gives a translation of some verses or statements originally in Greek or Latin, by showing both the original and the translation. Other times she shows us the mistranslated word or words and tells us the actual word in the ancient documents.

"Acharya has done a fascinating job on her latest book as she explains all the fallacies, misconceptions, and errors concerning the story of Jesus. This book shows she has put in many hours of research to assist in the many questions and inquiries concerning the contradictions, similarities to past stories, and actual or, rather, not actual historicity of the Bible. In the end, the logical conclusion is, in Robert Price's words, there never was an actual historical Jesus, or, if there ever was, he is too buried in myth to ever find him."

TBK Nation

Please feel free to spread copies of Who Was Jesus? around, including donating to public and university libraries!

Thank you for your help in bettering life on Earth!

Acharya S sig
D.M. Murdock
CEO and President
Stellar House Publishing

(Note the following Google Book Search depicts the older, pre-revision edition.)

Who Was Jesus? Ebook

© Stellar House Publishing, LLC and Acharya S/D.M. Murdock